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Gellan gum gels can be made at very low concentrations of even 0.05%; however, firm gels require concentrations of about 0.2%.

At concentrations less than about 0.05%, thickening occurs (this is true of all hydrocolloids, i.e., at concentrations below that required to form gels, they thicken aqueous systems).

Unlike other gums like agar, gellan gum can’t form a gel simply by dissolving it under heat and then cooling the solution. Addition of a cation is necessary for the gellan gum gelation.

Particularly to obtain a heat-resistant gel, the addition of the divalent calcium cation is effective.
Dispersions of gellans must be heated to 75–85°C (depending on the hardness of the water) to dissolve the gellan gum, which is required before gel formation can take place.

Ions increase the dissolution temperature. Sugars reduce gel strength.

There are two general types of gellans.
-native gellan (high-acyl types)
-low-acyl (partially deacylated)

Types that can be blended to form intermediate types.

Native (high-acyl) types form thermally irreversible (non-melting) gels with potassium and calcium ions and thermally reversible (meltable) gels with sodium ions. The gels are soft, very elastic, and non-brittle.

While Gels made from low-acyl types are hard, non-elastic, brittle, and always thermally reversible.

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