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What is tissue culture and why is it important?

-Tissue culture is a very technical method of asexual propagation that involves the growing of plant cells or tissues on artificial media under sterile conditions.
-It is also referred to as micropropagation.




Research is producing advances in tissue culture techniques.

As a result, more and more types of plants are being propagated by tissue culture, including:
1. Foliage plants
2. Woody ornamentals
3. Perennials
4. Cut flowers

There are several advantages to tissue culture over other methods of propagation.

1. Large numbers of plants can be produced from a single plant in a relatively small space and in a short period of time.
This reduces growing space, labor, and plant maintenance requirements.
2. Viruses and other systemic diseases are eliminated by propagating the quickly dividing cells of the shoot tip.
3. Tissue culture gives the grower a means to produce plants with identical traits.
4. Horticultural cultivars can be improved by selecting plants that vary slightly from the parent plant.
Examples of characteristics subject to improvement are leaf shape, disease resistance, growth habit, and flower color.
5. Tissue culture is a required technique for producing genetically engineered plants.
Genetically modified cells must be induced to divide and undergo cell differentiation in vitro, or in glass, before they are grown to maturity.
6. Tissue culture results in excellent basal branching of some plants.
Some foliage plants produced by tissue culture have excellent multi-stem characteristics.
What process is used for tissue culture propagation?

-The tissue culture propagation process can be defined in following stages.

-In the first stage, small pieces of plant material, called explants, are carefully removed from the parent plant.




Explants are obtained from actively growing parts (e.g., shoot tips, sections of leaves, stems and roots, or embryos) of a desired plant.
-Explants have bacteria or fungal spores on the tissue surface.
-Therefore, they must be cleaned before being placed in the culture.
-A short bath in a 10 percent bleach solution, followed by a rinse in sterile water, is often effective in killing microorganisms.

PS:

1.tissue culture must be done under aseptic, or sterile, conditions.

-The presence of any bacteria or fungal spores will contaminate the culture.


2.Tissue culture labs are designed to provide a clean environment.
-Technicians scrub much like surgeons do before surgery.
-Media, tools, and bottles or jars are sterilized in an autoclave.
-Autoclaving involves the heating of the materials to 245°F for 15 minutes to kill all bacteria and fungi.
-Also, to lessen the chance of contamination, work with the cultures is done under laminar airflow hoods.
-Laminar airflow hoods filter bacteria and fungal spores from the air.

3. Explants are placed on sterile agar media in glass bottles or test tubes.
Gellan gum is a gel that contains water, sugars, nutrients, and plant hormones to support and promote plant growth.

 the cells of the explants multiply in one of two ways.



1. They may form callous tissue, which is a group of cells with no particular function.
-Given the right hormones in the medium, these callous cells differentiate and develop into small plantlets consisting of leaves and stems.

2. The other possibility for stage 2 involves the rapid multiplication of plantlets.
-Cytokinins placed in the medium encourage an increase in the number of buds on the explants, usually six to eight per shoot.
-Each bud is capable of becoming a plant and producing more buds.

-Branching occurs as these buds develop into shoots, or plantlets.
-These plantlets are divided and transferred to test tubes or jars.
-New plantlets are continually cycled to new containers.
-In this way, a single explant can produce millions of plantlets in a year.
-When the plantlets have developed, they are ready for the third stage, the formation of roots.
-Shoots are transplanted to a medium containing a higher level of auxins.
-The auxins induce the growth of roots.
-The plantlets are also given higher light intensity
-the plantlets are removed from the glass containers and divided.
-gellan gum is washed from the plants.
-They are planted in a sterile growing medium and placed in a greenhouse.

Since the humidity in the greenhouse is much lower than in the glass containers, care must be taken during this transition to acclimatize the plants to a drier environment.
It is a common practice to place the young plants under a misting system until they grow accustomed to the environment and develop a stronger root system.

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